"The difference between winning and losing is most often not quitting." —Walt Disney


A dedicated professional have 12+ years experience in FMCG & Retail management with focusing areas of Sales Development, Trade Marketing Activities, Visual Merchandising, Category Management and Customer Service. I gained my experience by working in multinational and large companies in 4 different countries and in international work environment, which enable me to gain proper business values and ethics as well as developed my skills and competencies to fit in different assignments and show up high capability.

I have several interests and hoppy that I always arrange time to practice it, I’m found of computers technology particularly the software, I keep updating my self with latest and learn new computer related skills, the last thing I learned is Web Designing using Web Flow, this web site was my trial virgin of what I learned, I refused to use any ready  web site template and designed this web site from A-Z.  I’m found of  Photography as well, every picture in my social media pages I shoot it by myself  except few “please visit my social media pages by pressing the icons located at the bottom of this page”. The Sports is taking a good part of my attention also as I consider a good Tennis Player and a good Swimmer.

Many people got the opportunity to see big part of this world which is definitely adding value for their knowledge, senses and experience . For me I’m really happy with my traveling experience so far, I explore important and interesting parts of this world. I visited and lived in very nice cities like New York, Chicago, Orlando, Dallas, Vienna, Dubai & Jeddah rather than everywhere in Egypt.

In 1986 I graduated from the Technical Institute of Hotels which is part of the Ministry of high education institutes in Egypt. I studied a unique program in F&B Management in the English language which enable me to be very much familiar studying and researching in English. Later on and after many years I start to think about taking a serious step for my personal development and decided to study the master degree in Management using the online learning technology and the American Credit Hours System, I enrolled myself in McMillan University after the University calculated my credits and they informed me that I have to gain 36 credit after successfully pass 12 courses in different management aspects and subjects plus the final dissertation. In mid 2013 I was able to complete the study and I got my degree with GPA 3.58/4.

Reflecting on Work Improves Job Performance

New research by Francesca Gino, Gary Pisano, and colleagues shows that taking time to reflect on our work improves job performance in the long run.

Many of us are familiar with the gentle punishment known as "time-out," in which misbehaving children must sit quietly for a few minutes, calm down, and reflect on their actions.New research suggests that grown-ups ought to take routine time-outs of their own, not as a punishment, but in order to improve their job performance.


In the working paper Learning by Thinking: How Reflection Aids Performance, the authors show how reflecting on what we've done teaches us to do it more effectively the next time around."Now more than ever we seem to be living lives where we're busy and overworked, and our research shows that if we'd take some time out for reflection, we might be better off," says Harvard Business School ProfessorFrancesca Gino , who cowrote the paper with Gary Pisano, the Harry E. Figgie Professor of Business Administration at HBS; Giada Di Stefano, an assistant professor at HEC Paris; and Bradley Staats, an associate professor at the University of North Carolina's Kenan-Flagler Business School.

The research team conducted a series of three studies based on the dual-process theory of thought, which maintains that people think and learn using two distinct types of processes. Type 1 processes are heuristic—automatically learning by doing, such that the more people do something, the better they know how to do it. Type 2 processes, on the other hand, are consciously reflective, and are often associated with decision making.Essentially, the researchers hypothesized that learning by doing would be more effective if deliberately coupled with learning by thinking. They also hypothesized that sharing information with others would improve the learning process.


Principles of Organizational Theory

Organizational theory is the study of the structures of organizations. Four major theories contribute to this study -- classical theory, human relations or neo-classical theory, contingency or decision theory and modern systems theory. Over time, the emphasis in organizational theory has shifted from stiff, hierarchical structures rampant in the industrial age to broader, more flexible structures more prevalent in the technological, modern age.

Classical Theory

Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of the 20th century. It represents the merger of scientific management, bureaucratic theory and administrative theory. Scientific management theory has four basic principles: a scientific method exists to perform each task; select, train and develop workers for each task; closely supervise employees; and management's role is planning and control. Bureaucratic theory and administrative theory expanded on these principles. However, over time academics and practitioners began to view classical organization theory as too rigid and authoritative. It focused on structure and economic rewards and ignored individual freedom and the working environment.

Human Relations Theory

Human relations theory also is referred to as neoclassical theory. It uses some of the beliefs of classical theory as its base but expands those beliefs to incorporate other principles. Key principles include emphasizing differences between people to create different effective motivators; and resolving creative conflict to help develop new ideas and build stronger working relationships. Another principle involves emphasizing social interactions, participative management and decision-making.

Contingency/Decision Theory

Followers of contingency theory, also referred to as decision theory, view conflict as manageable. This theory espouses the principle that organizations act rationally and linearly to adapt to environmental changes. Contingency theory assesses management effectiveness by management’s environmental adaption abilities. In addition, in volatile industries -- for example, technology -- managers at all levels must have the authority to make decisions in their area, contingent on what is happening. Companies and managers must adjust their managerial styles and techniques based on the conditions occurring around them.

Modern Systems Theory

The foundation of the modern systems theory is the principle that all of an organization's components interrelate nonlinearly, therefore making a small change in one variable impact many others. A small change can cause a huge impact on another variable or large changes in a variable can cause a nominal impact. Another principle is that organizations operate as open systems in dynamic equilibrium as they constantly adjust and adapt to changes in their environment.

Roles of Organizational Structure

Organizational structure pertains to the way in which companies arrange their departments. Smaller companies tend to have flatter organizational structures with few management levels. Larger companies use tall organizational structures with many echelons of management and employees. Companies use several types of organizational structure for specific roles. For example, companies using a geographic organizational structure decentralize various functions like marketing because of varying regional needs.


One role of organizational structure is efficiency. Most companies need to make the most of various resources. Duplicating raw materials or job duties is wasteful and inefficient. Consequently, a company will structure its organizational according to products and services it offers. A small software manufacturer may use a customer-oriented organizational structure because of its wide variety of customers. For example, the software company may sell to consumers, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals and health clubs. In this case, organizing departments by customers is efficient because of diversity. Product management duties may differ widely by customer type. Marketing to consumers is much different than targeting corporations.

Harnessing Experience

Another role of organizational structure is harnessing experience. Companies may arrange their companies by specific functions, such as marketing, accounting, finance and engineering. The purpose of grouping departments by function is to use the experience of groups to accomplish tasks and projects. A certain synergism exists when skilled employees of similar talents work together as a whole. For example, marketing and advertising managers can can better evaluate the potential success of a new product introduction as a group.

Decision Making

Organizational structure in a company also enhances decision making, according to Companies will often structure their organizations to make the best decisions possible. For example, a company may decentralize its marketing to make quicker decisions locally. Consequently, the company may put marketing managers in one of four different regions. It is much easier for regional marketing managers to make local decisions about consumer needs than a marketing manager in a distant corporate office


Companies also also use various organizational structures for communication purposes. Larger companies have many levels of management. Therefore, the most effective way to communicate is usually from the top of the organization down. Executives create certain operational procedures which they communicate to directors and managers. Managers, in turn, explain these operational procedures to subordinates or hourly employees.

Span of Control

Organizational structure is used for span of control. For example, a vice president of marketing may be in charge of four directors: One for marketing research, brand management, advertising and public relations. The directors may have three separate groups of managers reporting to them. Span of control pertains to the number of employees an executive or manager oversees. This reporting structure is how companies establish accountability.

What Is the Relationship Between Organizational Functions & Organizational Structure?

Your business's functions are the things it does -- production, sales, marketing, research and billing, for example. The organizational structure defines the relationship and interactions between the parts of your business, and identifies how the chain of command runs through the different levels. You can set up your business structure around your organizational functions, but even if you don't, function and structure will influence each other.

An organizational chart shows who has responsibility for different business functions.

Functional Structure

Most businesses adopt a functional organizational structure: Different functions go into separate departments that report to department managers, who then report to someone higher up. If you adopt a functional structure, it has the advantage of clear lines of authority, and allows each employee to concentrate on her particular mission. The drawback is that you can end up with departments that don't talk to each other or cooperate well. A customer may get bounced from department to department if his problem doesn't relate to one particular function.

Divisional Structure

A divisional organizational structure spreads functions across different branches: If you have different product lines, the division for each product line has its own marketing, R&D, sales and accounting departments. The advantage of this approach is that each branch has the personnel to carry out all necessary functions. The drawback is that with employees in each division performing identical functions, you could end up with a lot of redundancy and inefficiency.

Matrix Structure

Using a matrix structure in your business can give you greater flexibility in business functions than a more hierarchical organization. In a matrix structure, each employee works in a function-based department, such as marketing or finance, but they can be assigned to projects under different managers and teamed with employees who have different functions. This structure adapts organizational function to changing organizational needs. The drawback is that the chain of command in a matrix may become cloudy and conflicted.

Organizational Charts

If you or your staff have trouble visualizing a proposed structure, you can use an organizational chart to see it clearly. The New York and Erie Railroad developed the first organizational charts in the 19th century as a way to improve management efficiency. A chart shows the lines of authority and control running between different departments and levels of management. A well-designed chart will make it easy to see who makes decisions, who reports to whom and how your organization divides up its operating functions.